WRIGHT COUNTY BOARD MINUTES
NOVEMBER 10, 2009
The Wright County Board met in regular session at 9:00 A.M. with Sawatzke, Mattson, Russek, and Thelen present. Commissioner Eichelberg was absent.
Russek moved to approve the 11-03-09 County Board Minutes, seconded by Thelen, carried 4-0.
Petitions were accepted to the Agenda as follows: Item For Consideration #1, “Add To 11-18-09 Technology Committee Agenda Discussion RE: Manatron Project, Strategy In The Assessor’s Office” (Swing). Russek moved to approve the Agenda as amended, seconded by Thelen, carried unanimously.
The Consent Agenda was discussed. Mattson referenced Item A2, “Claim, Architectural Renovations, Inc. $6,928 (Jail/LEC Project)” and stated this is another cost for the Jail project. Russek responded that the claim is for an acoustics repair that was approved previously by the Board. Sawatzke agreed, stating he felt approval was in late summer. He inquired whether this was the final payment. Richard Norman, County Coordinator, stated that Capt. Gary Torfin, Jail Administrator, does not foresee any other claims from the project. On a motion by Thelen, second by Russek, all voted to approve the Consent Agenda:
1. Performance Appraisals: D. Chapman, G. Stoppelman, Bldg. Maint.; C. Schulz, P&Z; J. Koenig, P. O’Malley, S. Poirier, Sher./Corr.
2. Claim, Architectural Renovations, Inc., $6,928 (Jail/LEC Project).
3. Claim, Horizon Roofing, Final Payment, $35,879.31.
4. Voluntary Leave Without Pay Report.
1. 2009 Tobacco License Renewal: Quik Shop (Rockford City). Bob Hiivala, Auditor/Treasurer, presented the October Revenue/Expenditure Guidelines for approval. On a motion by Russek, second by Thelen, all voted to accept the October Revenue/Expenditure Guidelines.
The claims listing was discussed. Mattson referenced a claim on page 8, Betmar Languages Inc. ($160.00) for Arabic interpreter services. He said there was recently a claim for a Russian interpreter as well and was surprised that people are in the middle of the United States and cannot speak English. Russek said interpreters would not have to be hired if the Federal Government would declare the nation’s language as English. Sawatzke said an interpreter is hired so that the person understands their rights. Mattson moved to approve the claims as listed in the abstract, subject to audit. The motion was seconded by Russek and carried 4-0.
Bill Swing, Information Technology Director, requested that the 11-18-09 Technology Committee Agenda be revised to include the following item, “Manatron Project, Strategy In The Assessor’s Office.” Russek moved to add this item to the Technology Committee Meeting Agenda, seconded by Thelen, carried unanimously.
Joe Hagerty, Chief Deputy Sheriff, requested the Board authorize signatures on a resolution for continuation of Traffic Safety Agreements with the State of Minnesota, Department of Public Safety, Office of Traffic Safety. The Grant Agreement consists of the Nightcap Grant and the Heat Grant. The Nightcap Grant concentrates on impaired drivers and the amount of the Grant will be determined later this month. The Heat Grant focuses on excessive speed and seatbelt enforcement on I-94. The initial amount of this Grant will be $2,970 for the November wave with a possibility of more Grant money coming in throughout the next year. The money is used to pay deputies overtime on saturation patrols. The patrols are voluntary and do not conflict with the deputies regular patrol duties. The Grant period will run from 10-01-09 to 9-30-10. Mattson moved to adopt Resolution #09-44, seconded by Thelen, carried 4-0 on a roll call vote.
Brian Asleson, Chief Deputy Attorney, requested the Board schedule a Public Hearing for the 2010 Solid Waste Debt Service Charge. Three years remain on payment of the bonds for the Compost Facility (2010, 2011, 2012). Russek moved to schedule the Public Hearing for 12-01-09 at 9:30 A.M., seconded by Thelen, carried 4-0.
The meeting recessed at 9:14 A.M. and reconvened at 9:22 A.M.
Wayne Fingalson, Highway Engineer, presented the 11-02-09 Transportation Committee Of The Whole Minutes for approval. At today’s County Board Meeting, the following corrections were made to the minutes: Page 3, last paragraph, 5th line, change from “ADP” to “ADT”; page 4, 2nd to last paragraph, 7th line, change from “Bot commented…” to “Steve Bot commented…” The following are the minutes including discussion which occurred on the topics at today’s County Board Meeting (reflected in italics):
1) Request from Albertville to Establish a Funding Task Force.
Mayor Klecker distributed a letter and thanked the committee members for allowing them to meet today and discuss their request to establish a funding task force. He also thanked the group for meeting at Albertville City Hall over the lunch break for the Road Tour on October 19, 2009. Kruse commented that the I-94 project has been a big challenge, and the City of Albertville is asking the County Board to appoint a couple of commissioners and Highway Department staff members to a funding task force for the purpose of identifying a funding path for this project. He anticipates that a funding plan could be in place before the end of the year. Mattson asked if Wright County has a funding task force in place to review projects and suggested that this would be a good idea so that all districts would be covered and information could be shared. Sawatzke and Eichelberg have met with the City of Albertville regarding plans for the I-94 project and the improvements that are planned for CSAH 19. Sawatzke agreed that it would be nice to have feedback from other commissioners who have dealt with similar issues so that the entire County Board can have some input. He added that he thought private property owners should share the cost of this project because they will be benefiting from it, and Kruse said that this is part of the plan. Fingalson said that he thought it was important to have both Hawkins and himself on this funding task force along with two commissioners. Historically, commissioners from the affected districts have been involved with task forces such as this, but it wouldn’t have to be the case this time. Kruse said that his staff will work on the planning and then bring a recommendation forward to the broader group so that this won’t be too time consuming for the task force. Sawatzke reiterated that it would be in Albertville’s best interest to have the private property parties pay as much as possible because they will be benefiting the most from these improvements. Kruse said that he agrees, but they have to be careful not to push too hard because they could end up in court. This group will also evaluate some of the risks of pushing too far. Sawatzke said that the property owners need to understand that if they are not willing to help out, this project might not get done. Private assessments for a Monticello highway project were in the multiple millions, and Hawkins agreed that a substantial portion of the cost was covered by private parties. Kruse said that there is a big difference between raw land and developed land. Albertville Outlet Mall is perfectly happy with the way things are at the present, so if they are assessed too high an amount, they will probably contest this in court, and the city needs a defensible assessment in court. Sawatzke agreed, but said that they still will have added value. Mattson commented that in the past there has been some dissatisfaction in other parts of the state because private business funded such a big portion of a project that the project got bumped ahead of other projects. Eichelberg said that he wouldn’t have a problem setting up a task force, having most of the work done by staff, and then inviting the whole county board or just two from the districts to work things through at that point. Sawatzke said that the request was for two county board members and staff, and he would be happy to serve on the task force. Kruse said that they are waiting to see how the appraisals come back to see where the areas of benefit are before they approach the City of Otsego. The appraiser report will identify areas of benefit, and they don’t know yet what that will be. The report probably won’t be ready until the end of November, so the first meeting will likely be held in early December. RECOMMENDATION: It was the recommendation of the TCOTW that Commissioners Sawatzke and Eichelberg and Highway Department staff members Fingalson and Hawkins serve on a funding task force set up by the City of Albertville for the purpose of identifying a funding path for the I-94/CSAH 19 project.
2) CSAH 17 Improvement Funding for Trail (Parks Department).
This funding issue for paving has been resolved, according to Parks Administrator Marc Mattice. Signs directing horseback riders will be installed on this trail, as recommended at the previous TCOTW meeting, as soon as good turf is established. No further discussion was needed.
3) Review Proposed 5-Year Plan Prior to 11/10/09 Public Meeting
Fingalson distributed a 5-Year Plan as developed and proposed by the Wright County Highway staff. He said that there is not as much federal funding as there has been in the past to help cover the cost of these projects, so more local dollars will be needed if this plan is adopted.
Projects for 2010 include reconstruction on 2.3 miles on the northern segment of CSAH 12 (south of TH 25). Mattson suggested that bidders for this project be researched to find out who has the best credentials for the job, rather than just relying on the lowest bid. He stated his dissatisfaction with the results in certain areas on the southern portion of CSAH 12, which was completed three years ago. Fingalson explained that the problem was a not a result of the contractor’s work, but rather due to underlying soil conditions that hadn’t been identified. Fingalson agreed that it would be nice to avoid this problem, but soil borings are done ahead of time and sometimes they do not detect problems areas that can be close by, and these areas are not identified before the project begins. When problems do surface, they correct them. A more thorough geotechnical analysis has been done as part of this CSAH 12 design, so they should not encounter similar problems. The upcoming CSAH 12 project will be in two portions, with the City of Buffalo responsible for that portion in the city limits and Wright County responsible for the other portion. State aid will be the primary funding source for that project. He added that the traffic signal planned at TH 25/CR 138 will be covered 100% by Mn/DOT. An additional $175,500 was awarded to Wright County for street lighting at 17 more intersections. Sawatzke asked if there was a way that these lights could be on only when vehicles pass by so that electricity could be saved. Wright County has about 80 intersections now, and each one averages a monthly cost of $28, which adds up to about $27,000/year. Although the county receives mostly favorable comments, not everyone is in favor of rural intersection lighting, and Thelen agreed that she would like to know if there is a way to have them on only when needed. Fingalson said that he would research this issue. He added that where the county shares an intersection with Mn/DOT, the county pays the full share of the electricity, and he said that there is discussion to change this policy. Meyer commented that his drivers really appreciate the lighted intersections when they are plowing. A total of 26.73 miles of overlays in the southwest portion of Wright County are planned and include segments of CSAHs 1, 6, 21, 30, and 7 and CR 153 at an estimated cost of just over $5 million. Approximately $1.8 million will come from state aid sources. Money has also been made available for some dynamic signing, which will be installed at problem intersections and along a curve area that seems to draw crashes. Though CSAH 75 is scheduled for an overlay in 2012 (14.63 miles), there is a slight possibility that federal stimulus money could be received to cover all of the cost of this improvement. Recent reports are that this is not likely to be awarded funds, but the Engineering Division is beginning preparations so that they will be ready with the design in case it is chosen.
Projects for 2011 include reconstruction to a one-mile stretch of CSAH 38 by and in the City of Annandale, which will add up to over $1 million. A number of overlays have been identified in the Buffalo area, including segments of CSAHs 12, 34, and 35, and CRs 117 and 147, for a total overlay of 22.84 miles and an estimated cost of $3.8 million, which will be covered entirely by local funds. The CSAH 40 Bridge will be replaced, three-quarters of which will be federally funded. Removal of the CSAH 75 Bridge over the railroad tracks near the nuclear plant (if approved by the Railroad) will be covered by state aid regular funds. Hopefully, the railroad will allow an at-grade crossing in this location as there is traffic on the tracks only about once every four years. There was some discussion about connecting CR 134 to CR 147 when CR 147 is overlaid, but Fingalson said that even though that intersection (CR 134/TH 55) has been designed for four-way traffic, there is not money at this time to connect the two. Hopefully, the federal reauthorization bill will be passed soon, even though there is no guarantee that money will be made available for this improvement. This would be a good candidate for state or federal money due to right-of-way costs, etc.
Projects for 2012 include reconstruction of 6.25 miles of CSAH 3 south of Cokato to the south county line, and costs of $6.7 million will be covered by state aid funds. There had been talk early on about completing this project in a two-year time frame (starting in 2011), but it can probably be completed in one year’s time and will cause less disruption and inconvenience for the nearby residents. Proposed overlays in the northwest portion of Wright County include segments of CSAHs 2 and 75 and CRs 123, 128, and 143 for a total overlay of 25.43 miles and an estimated cost of nearly $4 million, all of which will be funded by local monies.
Projects for 2013 include reconstruction of 3.7 miles of CSAH 12 (TH 55 north to CSAH 37) and 1.00 mile of CSAH 18 (MacIver Avenue to CSAH 22), for a total cost of just over $4.7 million, all of which will be covered by funding from state aid and the City of St. Michael. Proposed overlays in the eastern portion of Wright County include segments of CSAHs 10, 18, 33, 20 and CRs 112, 119, and 133 for a total overlay of 24.0 miles and an estimated cost of $3.4 million, most of which will be funded by local monies. An overlay on CSAH 20 at an estimated cost of $115,000 is scheduled in the City of Rockford. The CSAH 35 Bridge, between CSAHs 3 and 4, is proposed for replacement at a cost of $1 million, all of which could be funded by both federal and state funds, but so far the attempt to gain federal funds has been unsuccessful. Phase II of the CSAH 38 project in Annandale is estimated at just under $1 million and will be paid for by local monies.
Projects for 2014 include reconstruction of 2.6 miles of CSAH 6 (CSAH 37 to TH 55) at a cost of $2.6 million, all of which is expected to be covered by state aid monies. Proposed overlays in the central and northern portion of Wright County include segments of CSAHs 7, 38, 35 and CRs 109 and 132 for a total overlay of 21.4 miles and an estimated cost of $3.5 million, all of which will be funded by local monies.
Fingalson explained that the aforementioned projects have been identified as needs, but they will take more money than is available. He also explained that different types of shoulders could help contain some of the costs of the various projects. He distributed a cost breakdown of the shoulder options for both six-foot and eight-foot widths. Fingalson said that an eight-foot width is nice for maintenance, for farm equipment, and for improved safety. The state requires a minimum of a six-foot width, unless the roadway has an ADT of over 1,500 and is a minor arterial, in which case the shoulder width must be eight feet. Putting down a six-foot shoulder on CSAH 3 (in the upcoming project) could help make a significant difference in the cost of this project. Sawatzke commented that a road with less traffic and one that has narrow shoulders to begin with would be a good candidate for six-foot shoulders. If state aid money is used, the shoulder has to be at least six feet wide, but part of the shoulder could be gravel. However, this brings in the additional issue of maintenance of the gravel shoulders and safety factors when there is a drop off at the edge of the pavement. Narrower shoulders also help save money on right-of-way purchases, length of centerline culverts, and tree removal. Meyer commented that safety can be affected for those who pull off to change a tire, and farm machinery can create ruts in the gravel edge outside the shoulder, which leads to more maintenance. Sawatzke said that the level of traffic would also be a factor. It would be good to be consistent with shoulder width on contiguous segments of the same highway, but CSAH 3 south of Cokato might be a good candidate for narrower shoulders. RECOMMENDATION: It was the consensus of the TCOTW that the Wright County 2010-2014 Five-Year CIP as presented by the Highway Department today be presented at the upcoming Five-Year Informational Public Meeting scheduled for November 10, 2009. Information regarding various shoulder options and their costs will also be available for review at that time.
At today’s County Board Meeting, Fingalson stated that since the TCOTW Meeting he has learned that the technologies are not available for motion activation for street lights. It takes 4-5 minutes for the lights to turn on and switching them on/off all the time reduces the bulb life. LED bulbs come in 150W and street lights need a 250W bulb. Fingalson suggested waiting until this technology is available. Thelen referenced the amount spent for intersection lighting throughout the County. She understands the lighting was installed as a safety feature but inquired whether there was data to reflect accident rates now versus in the past. Fingalson said the lighting was installed as a proactive approach based on an Iowa study completed in 1999. The study includes before and after data at intersections. A significant reduction (up to 70%) was realized in crashes. This is the basis for Wright County adopting their policy, and the policy makes reference to the Iowa study. Fingalson does not have data to reflect that the lighting has saved a certain number of lives in Wright County. Lighting was installed as a proactive approach. Thelen inquired whether street lights will be installed throughout the entire County. Fingalson said with the 2006 Mn/DOT District safety audit, it was recommended that the long range plan be to install street lights at 25% of the intersections. If the County installs street lights at the proposed 17 intersections, this would about 25%. Fingalson said the County’s policy is on the State’s website as a model. Thelen inquired about the ongoing costs. Fingalson said previously when a street light was installed, Wright Hennepin was contacted. There was no cost to install them and the utility costs ran about $15-$16 per month. Now a two-light system is used with break away poles at a cost of about $10,000-$11,000/intersection. About 90% of the funding comes from the Federal government. Fingalson said Mn/DOT’s policy is that any street light becomes the property of the city or county and Mn/DOT does not pay for any power. Fingalson felt this was inconsistent with their traffic signal policy, where the costs are split 50/50 with Mn/DOT. A number of these street lights are on State Highways and the county or city involved is paying for the power. Sawatzke said the original topic was reducing the expense. He felt there should be some type of motion sensor method available to reduce lighting when it is not needed. This would also result in less pollution associated with power plants creating this energy. Sawatzke said a sign will be erected in the Otsego/St. Michael area that reflects a vehicle’s speed and flashing will occur if a vehicle is going an unsafe speed. He felt the technologies exist. Fingalson felt the LED lighting will be available in the not too distant future, which will result in savings.
At today’s County Board Meeting, Fingalson said that since the discussion at the TCOTW meeting, Marc Mattice, Parks Administrator, reminded him that CSAH 3 is on the Regional Trail Plan. From their standpoint, they would prefer an 8’ shoulder. This comes at increased costs.
4) Discuss Options for Former McNamara and Chouinard Properties.
As directed at a previous TCOTW meeting, Johnson contacted adjacent property owners to the former McNamara property in St. Michael. There are three adjoining properties and owners, but only two expressed any interest in obtaining this property, and neither was interested in paying $20,000 for it. Johnson offered to talk to the County Assessor to find out the market value of this property. There was some discussion about whether a structure could be built on this property, and the suggestion was made that any interested parties could check with the City of St. Michael regarding their ordinances/rules. Asleson said that since this property has already been advertised for sale/bids, the county is now free to offer it for sale but can’t sell it for less than 90% of the value assessed to it. RECOMMENDATION: It was the consensus of the TCOTW that Johnson contact the County Assessor for an appraised value of the former McNamara Property and then have a sign posted on the property seeking offers, with the minimum acceptable offer (90% of appraised value) posted.
Johnson explained that only two bids had been submitted for the purchase of the former Chouinard property when it was advertised for sale two years ago. One of those bidders is no longer interested in the property, and the other is interested but not at the price they initially offered. Eichelberg suggested that it might be better to hang on to this property until the economy turns around, and Sawatzke agreed with that assessment. The suggestion was made that the barn is currently a liability, and maybe this should be removed. It sits on top of a concrete foundation, and Omanns (adjacent property owner) might be interested in recycling that if it is dropped off on their property. They might even be willing to come and get it themselves. Steve Bot commented that this property is contiguous to 2,000 acres of parkland/reserve in Hennepin County, and someone said that a realtor had commented that this would be a nice location for another county park. Asleson said that this property can be sold by other means once you have advertised it and haven’t received any bids or any acceptable bids. Perhaps someone would be interested in salvaging the barn wood, but all agreed that the entire structure be removed if an offer is to be accepted. A certificate of insurance would also be necessary to hold the county harmless during this process. If no interest is expressed for the removal of this barn, contact could be made with the local fire department so that this structure could be removed via a controlled burn. RECOMMENDATION: It was the consensus of the TCOTW that Johnson and Asleson advertise for the removal of the barn and detached storage building from the former Chouinard property and that proof of insurance holding the county harmless and a bond or cashier’s check covering incomplete removal be provided by the chosen candidate.
5) Right-of-way Issues in City of Clearwater Along CSAH 75.
Johnson reported that he had just found information in the highway files indicating that the property in question had already been vacated by the County in 1984. Asleson commented that even though a resolution was adopted indicating the County’s revocation of this property, it is quite possible that a Quit Claim Deed was not recorded, as that was not common practice at that time for this type of transaction. The City may or may not have been notified at the time, but they should be notified now that they are the owners of this tract. The property owner interested in acquiring this tract should be directed to contact the City of Clearwater. RECOMMENDATION: It was the consensus of the TCOTW that the Highway Department staff notify the property owner and the City of Clearwater regarding the 1984 vacation action.
At today’s County Board Meeting, Fingalson referenced the McNamara property. He questioned whether the intent was for the land value to be posted on the for sale sign or whether the sign should indicate the property is for sale and a contact number. Sawatzke said that once the value of the land is obtained, Fingalson should contact the adjoining property owners who expressed interest in the property and ask them to provide a bid of 90% or more of the value. Fingalson stated that quotes received will be handled by the Highway Department and the high quote will be presented to the County Board for review.
Sawatzke referenced the Chouinard property and questioned whether a bond is required. He felt this may not be practical for someone that may bid that is not a professional corporation. Brian Asleson, Chief Deputy Attorney, stated that the bidder can use a bond, cash, or cashier’s check. The concrete removal will not be part of the bid. Fingalson will contact Oman’s to see if they will remove the concrete.
At today’s County Board Meeting, Russek moved to approve the 11-02-09 Transportation Committee Of The Whole Minutes, seconded by Thelen, carried 4-0.
(End of TCOTW Minutes and discussion) Norman stated that notice was received announcing an Open House for the Regional Crime Lab on 11-18-09. He reminded the Board that there is a Technology Committee Meeting scheduled for 1:30 P.M. that day. He inquired whether the Board should provide public notice that they will be attending. Sawatzke did not feel this was necessary as it was unlikely there would be a quorum and no decision making will occur. The County Board decided to change the time of the Technology Committee Meeting to 1:00 P.M. on 11-18-09 as Thelen stated she has a conflict.
Brian Abrahamson $456.85
Albion Township 588.00
American Messaging 546.34
American Solutions for Bus. 1,989.10
American Tower & ATC Tower 3,480.00
Ameripride Linen and Apparel 211.95
AMI Imaging Systems Inc. 8,791.33
APCO International Inc. 500.00
Aramark Correctional Serv. 202.37
Aramark Services 12,598.99
Auto Glass Center Inc. 270.89
Bob Barker Co. 309.16
Barnes Distribution 507.86
Best Western Bemidi Inn 163.36
Betmar Languages Inc. 160.00
Boyer Truck Parts 471.70
Buffalo Clinic 104.24
City Buffalo 62,269.98
Canon Business Solutions-Cent 258.00
Center Point Energy 192.31
Centra Sota Lake Region LLC 24,972.79
Central McGowan Inc. 120.07
Chamberlain Oil Co. 3,941.68
Corinna Township 913.40
Dell Marketing LP 167.34
Dingmann Marine & More LLC 163.20
Nicholas Eastman 150.00
Elections Systems & Software 1,718.39
Elk River Municipal Utilities 1,774.22
Dale Engel 987.50
Ernst General Const. Inc. 6,215.00
Fastenal Company 148.93
Gale-Tec Engineering Inc. 608.00
GCS Service Inc. 241.64
Raymond Glunz 120.00
Hennepin County IT Dept. 1,800.00
Hillyard Inc. - Minneapolis 414.14
Horizon Roofing Inc. 350.40
City Howard Lake 1,529.80
Indelco Plastics Corp. 108.38
The Inn on Lake Superior 1,071.36
International Assn. of Assess 175.00
Kevin Johnson 125.00
Junction Towing & Auto Repair 133.59
Kaplan Professional Schools 5,950.00
Lake Superior College 150.00
LaPlant Demo Inc. 1,061.17
Latest Products Corporation 188.68
Law Enforcement Training Serv 120.00
Lawson Products Inc. 422.36
M-R Sign Company Inc. 889.37
Maple Lake Township 911.00
Martin Marietta Aggregates 861.86
Richard Mattson 140.25
Menards - Buffalo 133.43
The Metro Group Inc. 3,099.86
Midland Corp. Benefits SVC 997.75
Midwest Machinery Co. 3,927.66
Mini Biff LLC 143.76
MN Sheriffs Association 280.00
Monticello Auto Body Inc. 2,239.91
Moore Medical 113.63
Morries Parts & Service Group 2,723.92
Margaret Munson 444.95
Nextel Communications 272.85
Office Depot 2,949.00
Omann Brothers Inc. 1,793.47
Performance Office Papers 415.74
PMI Computer Supplies 699.90
PowerPlan OIB 311.65
Reds Auto Electric 210.01
Royal Tire Inc. 2,763.37
Russell Security Resource Inc. 830.42
Ryan Chevrolet 895.05
Sentra Sota Sheet Metal Inc. 875.00
Sheriffs Youth Program 300.92
SHI International Corp 462.75
Silver Creek Township 816.40
Southside Township 740.60
Span Publishing Inc. 159.00
St. Cloud Medical Group PA 279.58
Staples Advsntage 260.98
State of MN-Office Enterprise 346.80
State Supply Co. 129.38
Tech Depot 259.49
Truck Utilities Inc. 402.41
University of Minnesota 230.00
University of MN 810.00
Vance Brothers Inc. 1,335.94
Veolia ES Rolling Hills Landfi 235.31
Verizon Wireless 138.94
Voss Lighting 375.62
Walmart Community BRC 179.03
Waste Management - TC West 2,223.36
Wright Co. Highway Dept. 17,162.41
Wright Hennepin Coop Elec 196.73
41 Payments less than $100 2,125.44
Final total $221,754.66
The meeting adjourned at 9:50 A.M
Published in the Herald Journal Dec. 7, 2009.